Thursday, February 4, 2010

CINNAMOMUM VERUM (KAYU MANIS)




Cinnamon / Kayu manis ( Kayu manis sebenar)
BAY LEAF SUBSTITUTES

Botanical name: Cinnamomum verum,
Common name: True cinnamon / Kayu manis sebenar
synonym: C. zeylanicum
family: Lauraceae
Origin: Sri Lanka
Tree height: 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall.

In Malaysia, cinnamom bark is a very popular culinary spices and the leaves are used in the preparation of good and classy ‘nasi lemak’.

The essential oil obtain from cinnamon is yellow in colour.

Leaves:
The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long.
Oil from the leaves contain:
  • The leaves gives oil with great predominance of eugenol

Flowers:
The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor.

Fruits:
The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.

Bark:
Oil extraction;

  • The oil from the bark consist if two variety , one heavier than water and the other lighter. Heavier than water oil, consist chiefly of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol.
  • The essential oil of cinnamon bark (max. 4%) is dominated by the two phenylpropanoids cinnamaldehyde (3-phenyl-acrolein, 65 to 75%)
  • Eugenol (4-(1-propene-3-yl)-2-methoxy-phenol, 5 to 10%).
  • Other phenylpropanoids (safrole, coumarin [max. 0.6%] cinnamic acid esters), mono- and sesquiterpenes, although occurring only in traces, do significantly influence the taste of cinnamon.
  • Another trace component relevant for the quality is 2-heptanone (methyl-n-amyl-ketone). The slime content of the bark is rather low (3%).
Root:
  • The bark of the root gives 3 per cent of oil with safrol, eugenol, eucalytol and camphor
Uses:
  • Cinnamon lowers the rate of cellular respiration in yeast.
  • Spice obtained from the tree's bark Only the thin (0.5 mm) inner bark is used; the outer woody portion is removed. (Curry powder
  • In Malaysia the leaves of cinnamon ,pandan wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius), coconut milk are cook with the rice for the preparation of “nasi lemak’ a popular Malaysian meal.
  • Cinnamon is often added to oatmeal, toast, candy, hot chocolate, tea or coffee, and in chewing gums.
  • Widely use in the perfumery industry.
  • Use for colic and diarrhea.
  • as a stimulant, carminative, antipasmodic and also as an antiseptic.
  • medicines for sore throats and coughs.
  • Cinnamon has been used to alleviate indigestion, stomach cramps, intestinal spasms, nausea, and flatulence, and to improve the appetite.
  • In folk medicine it was used for treating rheumatism and other inflammations.
  • Its mild anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and anti-clotting properties are believed to be due to its content of cinnamaldehyde.
  • Cinnamon extracts are active against Candida albicans, the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infection, and also Helicobacter pylori, the bacterium responsible for stomach ulcers. The antimicrobial properties of cinnamon are thought to be due to eugenol and a derivative of cinnamaldehyde.
  • Cinnamon extracts have also inhibited the growth of cultured tumor cells. This effect may be due to the presence of procyanidins and eugenol in the bark extract.
  • Cinnamon is also useful as a food preservative to inhibit the growth of common food-borne bacteria such as Salmonella and E coli.
  • Cinnamon has been used in Korea and China as a traditional herb for treating people with diabetes.
  • The cinnamon buds are the unripe fruits harvested shortly after the blossom and its appearance similar to cloves. Their usage as a spice has only regional importance in China
Reference:
  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • A Dictionary Of The Economic Products Of The Malay Peninsula By I.H.Burkill
  • Antimicrobial Properties of Cinnamomum verum Aqueous Extract D. Puangpronpitag and C. Sittiwet http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajbs.2009.49.53
  • Winston Craig, PhD, MPH, RD, Professor of Nutrition, Andrews University, MI, USA.
  • Gernot Katzer spice pages http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Cinn_zey.html#part

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